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 Post subject: Re: Early Mounted Military 1832-1861
PostPosted: Tue Apr 05, 2016 9:49 pm 
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Great research Doug !!
I like the riflemans knife.
Not knowing a lot about saddles.... I find the gear attachments points interesting, looks like they were well thought out.

Creek


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 Post subject: Re: Early Mounted Military 1832-1861
PostPosted: Tue Apr 05, 2016 10:09 pm 
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Creek..........thanks....there was such great military history before 1861 and good reason it was commonly referred to the Army of West (1rst Regt Of Dragoons campaign to take New Mexico, Arizona and California)

You can get a reproduction 1849 Ames Hunting knife from various places:
http://wildwestgiftemporium.com/replica-knives/

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"Nope!....If I gotta choose.....I'll ride the mule and pack the horse!" WD Bennett


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 Post subject: Re: Early Mounted Military 1832-1861
PostPosted: Wed Apr 06, 2016 2:23 pm 
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1851 saw major uniform changes among all the Army branches. Previously some effort was made to distinguish between branches by uniform trim. Both branches of Dragoons and Mounted Rifles had worn yellow trim on their uniform jackets, with Dragoons wearing yellow stripes on trousers and Mounted Rifles the wide black stripe trimmed in yellow piping. Infantry had worn white trim on jackets and trousers and artillery both "Light or Mounted" and field had worn red trim. Chevrons for each branch color coordinated with trim colors. In 1851 regulations tried to distinguished further by changing the trim on both regiments of dragoons to orange...assuming that the change was to give engineers the "piped" yellow trim. Artillery continued to be red, while infantry now went to a light blue trim. Mounted Rifles were changed to green trim. Dress uniforms as seen in the photo were now a simple single breasted frock coat while field jackets "shell jackets" remained pretty much the same but with the new color designations. The new "shako" or "Albert" caps replaced the wheel or forage caps of the previous 12 years with new color designations on trim and pompoms. Most of the rest of the arms and horse equipment stayed the same except some dragoons received the 1847 musketoon. All leather belts/saber belts and slings have now changed to black rather than buff white.
Here is a photo of branches in dress uniforms reflecting new style and color changes. The shakos they are wearing would be used for dress and field.
Image
Dragoons and Riflemen have by now started receiving Colt's various Dragoon model revolvers.
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1847 Cavalry Musketoon
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"Nope!....If I gotta choose.....I'll ride the mule and pack the horse!" WD Bennett


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 Post subject: Re: Early Mounted Military 1832-1861
PostPosted: Wed Apr 06, 2016 9:47 pm 
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More good info Doug.
What kind of info do you have on the 1847 musketoon ?


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 Post subject: Re: Early Mounted Military 1832-1861
PostPosted: Wed Apr 06, 2016 9:50 pm 
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Is anyone out there shooting one of the 1847 musketoons ??
What kind of accuracy...distance....etc do you get with it ?
Using ball or conicals ?
Thanx

Creek


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 Post subject: Re: Early Mounted Military 1832-1861
PostPosted: Wed Apr 06, 2016 10:03 pm 
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"The Springfield Model 1847 Musketoon was a shortened version of the Springfield Model 1842 standard infantry musket.

Three basic models were produced at Springfield between 1847 and 1859. The total production of all three models is estimated at approximately 10,000 musketoons.

The cavalry model was not highly regarded by those mounted troops to whom they were issued. Inspector General Joseph Mansfield conducted a tour of the Western outposts in 1853 and reported that the troops made many derogatory comments about the musketoons. Dragoons told him that when the weapon was carried by a mounted trooper, the ball would simply roll out of the musketoon's barrel. His report also stated that "there is no probable certainty of hitting the object aimed at,and the recoil is too great to be fired with ease." Mansfield concluded that the gun was essentially "a worthless arm," having "no advocates that I am aware of."




Remember dragoons up till now had used Hall carbines and "some" COLT Revolving rifles.......which in the case of the Hall carbine was easier to load at the breech than a muzzleloader. Most modern reenactors opt for a reproduction "47 Musketoon" which is more readily available and less expensive than a custom made Hall Carbine or an original.

Josh check link for repro! :D

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"Nope!....If I gotta choose.....I'll ride the mule and pack the horse!" WD Bennett


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 Post subject: Re: Early Mounted Military 1832-1861
PostPosted: Sun Apr 10, 2016 9:23 pm 
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Doug.....thanx for the info


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 Post subject: Re: Early Mounted Military 1832-1861
PostPosted: Mon Apr 11, 2016 8:26 pm 
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By 1855, Congress realizing the number of mounted soldiers was not enough authorized the raising of two more regiments, the 1st Cavalry and the 2nd Cavalry. Secretary Of War Jefferson Davis had lobbied hard for two new mounted regiments and consequently appointed the majority of officers.

Among them were in the 1rst Regt., Captain George B. McClellan, (Major General, Commander, Army of the Potomac and the inventor of the famed McClellan saddle), and 2nd Lieutenant James E.B. (Jeb) Stuart, (Major General, CSA, Commander of the Confederate Cavalry Corps).

The 2nd Regt included 12 future generals: field officers Robert E. Lee (who was appointed to succeed to command in 1861), William J. Hardee, and George H. Thomas, and line officers Earl Van Dorn, Edmund Kirby Smith, George Stoneman, Kenner Garrard, William B. Royall, Nathan G. Evans, Fitzhugh Lee, and John B. Hood.

The 1st Cavalry Regiments were constituted on 3 March 1855. The 1rst was organized at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri on 26 March 1855 under the command of Colonel Edwin Voss Sumner.
The 2nd Regt. was organized at Louisville Kentucky under the command of Albert Sidney Johnston.

The 1rst Regt was, upon completion of the organization of the regiment in August 1855, assigned to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Its mission was two-fold; to maintain law and order in the Kansas Territory between pro and anti-slavery factions and to protect the settlers from attacks by the Cheyenne Indians. In 1857 the regiment was split with half taking up new quarters at Fort Riley, Kansas and the rest maintaining small garrisons scattered throughout the state. On 3 March 1861, Colonel Robert E. Lee assumed command of the 1st Cavalry only to resign his commission a month later to lead the Confederate States Army in the Civil War.

The 2nd organizing on 28 May 1855. A few months later, on 27 September 1855, the regiment of 750 officers and men marched west to fight in its first Indian Campaign, against the Comanche, reaching Fort Belknap, Texas, in late December.

Both Regts campaigned variously throughout the western frontier from Texas throughout the Kansas Territory engaged against primarily Comanches in the south and the Cheyenne in the north.

As early as 1854, the War Department had been wanting to redesignate all mounted regiments as cavalry and to renumber them in order of seniority. Thus in August 1861 the 1rst Dragoons became the 1rst Cavalry, the 2nd Dragoons became the 2nd Cavalry, the U.S. Mounted Rifles became the 3rd. Cavalry. As the 1st Cavalry Regiment was the fourth oldest mounted regiment in terms of active service, it was redesignated as the 4th Cavalry and the 2nd Cavalry Regiment became the 5th in August 1861.

In 1855 the two new "cavalry" regiments adopted generally the same blue wool uniforms as the three previous regiments with the exception that they were once again trimmed in yellow tape. However the 1rst and 2nd Cav. were issued a new style of hat that would be popular during the early years of the Civil War. Known as the Hardee hat apparently was named after William J. Hardee. Also in 1855 a new "forage cap" was issued often known as the McDowell cap.
Image

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 Post subject: Re: Early Mounted Military 1832-1861
PostPosted: Thu Apr 14, 2016 12:49 pm 
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I've added a couple of photos of head gear for the period 1855-1861
This is "I believe" a Mounted Rifleman officer's Hardee hat....the style would be popular up through the early years of the Civil War.
Image
Here is the 1855 Dragoon forage cap......I had to use a reproduction as I could find a better photo of a mounted cap. Until all mounted regiments were designated as "cavalry" the brass crossed saber insignia were as shown for Dragoons but reversed or "upside down" on the two Cavalry regiments caps and hats.
Image

After the integration of all mounted regiments into numbered cavalry regiments both Dragoon regts. as well as the Mounted Riflemen refused to give up their shell jackets and trousers distinguished by orange trim for Dragoons and green trim for Mounted Rifles. They continued to wear them until they basically fell off or until their commanders ordered their replacements with cavalry uniforms trimmed in yellow. The esprit d' corps of "for instance " The 3rd Cavalry Regiment, formerly 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment is known as "Brave Rifles" and carries as it emblem the inverted trumpet of the Mounted Rifles as well as green as regimental color.
ImageImage

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"Nope!....If I gotta choose.....I'll ride the mule and pack the horse!" WD Bennett


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 Post subject: Re: Early Mounted Military 1832-1861
PostPosted: Thu Apr 14, 2016 2:20 pm 
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Ignorant of exactly what revolvers and carbines were issued to the two new cavalry regiments.....maybe someone could add to the history...............but I assume 3rd Model Dragoon revolvers, perhaps the lighter "51 Navies" but as to carbines, besides what the dragoons carried I would assume perhaps early Sharps carbines. I don't have my "Horse Soldiers" volumes to rely on so I am mostly working from the internet. However the most interesting and significant weapon developed for the new cavalry was the 1855 Springfield "pistol carbine". This may be the only true "cavalry" weapon in the history of U.S.mounted troops known as cavalry, since as I alluded to before, with this exception .......cavalry fought as dragoons or mounted infantry since they carried carbines and most often rode to the place of the battle and dismounted to fight on foot with their carbines and revolvers. There were of course exceptions in the Civil War but usually "cavalry" carried some type of "long arm" which by definition cavalry did not.

The 1855 Springfield "pistol carbine" was issued with a pommel holster that would carry the large .54 cal single shot pistol on one side and the detachable shoulder stock on the other. The pistol also came with a "lanyard ring or Carbine ring" on the butt of the pistol to be carried on a sling during battle or at readiness.
Image
The Springfield had the Maynard self priming system.....like a roll of caps that was hidden behind a side door on the lock plate. Below is the black leather pommel holster designed for the 1855 Springfield Pistol Carbine and Shoulder Stock.
Image
Another version that allows for the Springfield pistol to be carried on one side and a 3rd Model Dragoon revolver on the other.
Here's a young Cavalry trooper outfitted with the 1855 Springfield pistol carbine. He also seems ot be equipped with the older 1840 model dragoon saber.
Image

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